Egalitarian Gender Role Attitudes Between Filipino Males and Females

by Lyka T. Manglal-lan (2024)


The Philippines is one of the most gender-equal countries in Asia, closing the gaps in both economic participation and opportunity; and health and survival. However, just like many other developing countries undergoing demographic transition, attitudes towards egalitarian or gender-equal roles in the public sphere (e.g., law, civil rights, work status) have progressed, but were “stalled” in the private sphere of the home where women are trying to perform and reconcile their roles as both caregivers and providers. Since gender is an important factor affecting such attitudes, the study examined gender differences in egalitarian gender role attitudes (EGRA) between Filipino males and females. This study drew data from the 1994, 2002, and 2012 rounds of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP) – Family and Changing Gender Roles module, a nationally representative survey of Filipinos 18 years old and above. To capture EGRA in both public and private spheres, EGRA was derived from two (2) questions asking the respondents the extent to which they agree or disagree that both the man and the woman should contribute to household income, and that a man’s job is to earn money while a woman’s job is to look after the home and family. As demonstrated by the binary logistic regression analysis, the level of EGRA has increased over time, with a significantly lower likelihood of embracing EGRA among respondents in 1994 compared to respondents in 2012. Females are also more likely to endorse EGRA than their male counterparts, controlling for the background characteristics used in this study. Additionally, both education and work status emerged as significant correlates of EGRA, validating earlier studies on the role of educational institutions and workplace environments in challenging non-egalitarian gender norms. As more people gain access to education and work opportunities, the results of the study suggest that the Philippines is likely to witness a gradual shift towards more EGRA. Furthermore, a review of the current programs and policies in the country aimed at providing work life balance for families, including emerging family forms, should take into consideration the attitudes of men and women towards paid and unpaid work.